Activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase requires the regulatory proteins p47(phox) and p67(phox), each harboring two SH3 domains. p67(phox) interacts with p47(phox) via simultaneous binding of the p67(phox) C-terminal SH3 domain to both the proline-rich region (PRR) of amino acid residues 360-369 and its C-terminally flanking region of p47(phox); the role of the interaction in oxidase regulation has not been fully understood. Here we show that the p47(phox)-p67(phox) interaction is disrupted not only by deletion of the PRR but also by substitution for basic residues in the extra-PRR (K383E/K385E). The substitution impaired oxidase activation partially in vitro and much more profoundly in vivo, indicating the significance of the p47(phox) extra-PRR. Replacement of Ser-379 in the extra-PRR, a residue known to undergo phosphorylation in stimulated cells, by aspartate attenuates the interaction and thus results in a defective superoxide production, suggesting that phosphorylation of Ser-379 is involved in oxidase regulation. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.