Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a serine protease that degrades glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone that stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. DPP4 is also involved in the regulation of T cell-mediated inflammatory processes. These properties of DPP4 suggest that it may play a role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hepatic DPP4 mRNA expression levels were analyzed by real-time PCR using liver biopsy samples from 17 NAFLD patients and 10 healthy subjects. In NAFLD patients, we also examined correlations between DPP4 expression levels and metabolic factors, including homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. To examine the potential effects of nutritional factors, DPP4 expression levels were analyzed in HepG2 cells subjected to various culture conditions. Hepatic DPP4 mRNA expression was significantly greater in NAFLD patients than in control subjects. DPP4 expression levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and positively correlated with serum cholesterol levels. In HepG2 cells, high glucose significantly enhanced DPP4 expression, whereas insulin, fatty acids and cholesterol did not. Increased hepatic expression of DPP4 in NAFLD may be associated with metabolic factors, including insulin resistance, and may adversely affect glucose metabolism in this liver disease.